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Alternator Plug and B+ terminal
Pictured is the rear of the older Land Rover part # YLE500190 alternator showing the shiny cooling fin of the Regitar VRH2005-142 regulator under.

The first pin in the far left side of the connector is numbered #1 in the LR electrical wiring diagrams and is Battery Voltage Sensing (BVS); the middle pin, #2 receives a Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) signal from the Engine Control Module (ECM), and the right pin, #3 carries a PWM signal back to the ECM. Terminal Pin #2 on the LR wiring diagrams is called Alternator Control or ALT CON; Pin #3 per LR is called Alternator Monitoring or ALT MON.

Pin #1 is similar to what in older designs used to be called A or Batt, but is now called by Denso, S, AS, or Alternator Sensing for this design. Pin #1 also provides power to excite the alternator at startup until the PWM instructions over ride the battery voltage info. Land Rover calls the electronics under the pins a Smart Regulator, ironic, as it has to follow orders from the ECM rather than give the orders - new age thinking I guess. This is different from older design internal regulators that look at just the battery or the electrical buss voltage and then decides itself what to do.

It is almost like we are back to the external regulator designs of old, except that the ECM may decide that instead of telling the alternator to make more power, to load shed, and hence shut down the heated windscreen, seats, or whatever other electrical loads it decides are appropriate. My view is that the "smarts" are in the ECM and that the "regulator" should be regarded if not dumb, then as being a slave to the ECM.
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